The IBSF is committed to the eradication of doping from sport and to protecting clean athletes. Doping can be harmful to an athletes health, damages the integrity of sport, and is morally and ethically wrong. All athletes participating in IBSF competitions must abide by the current IBSF Anti-Doping Rules, which came into effect on 1 January 2021 .
Since March 2020 the IBSF has delegated the implementation of certain aspects of the anti-doping programme to the International Testing Authority (ITA). Additionally, the IBSF cooperates with the CAS Anti-Doping Division.
Please find below detailed information on IBSF's Anti-Doping programme. For any questions/comments/suggestions, please do not hesitate to contact:
phone: +43 6247 20232 10
What is doping?
Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following anti-doping rule violations:
- Presence of a prohibited substance in an athlete’s sample
- Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method
- Refusing to submit to sample collection after being notified
- Failure to file athlete whereabouts information & missed tests
- Tampering with any part of the doping control process
- Possession of a prohibited substance or method
- Trafficking a prohibited substance or method
- Administering or attempting to administer a prohibited substance or method to an athlete
- Complicity in an anti-doping rule violation
- Prohibited association with athlete support personnel who has engaged in doping
The use of doping substances or doping methods to enhance performance is fundamentally wrong and is detrimental to the overall spirit of sport. Drug misuse can be harmful to an athlete's health or to other athletes competing in the sport. It severely damages the integrity, image and value of sport, whether or not the motivation to use drugs is to improve performance. To achieve integrity and fairness in sport a commitment from athletes and all persons involved in sport is critical.
As an Athlete, what do I need to know about doping?
“Every athlete has the right to clean sport” - The purpose of the Athletes Anti Doping Rights Act is to ensure that the rights of all athletes worldwide to participate in doping-free sport are clearly set out, accessible, and universally applicable. The Act is based on the 2021 World Anti-Doping Code (Code) and its related International Standards.
Any athlete may be tested in -and out-of- competition at anytime, anywhere and with no advance notice.
Every athlete needs to be aware of the current List of Prohibited Substances and know his or her rights and responsibilities under the IBSF’s Anti-Doping Rules (in line with the World Anti-Doping Code). Athletes should know that, under the Code, they are strictly liable whenever a prohibited substance is found in their body. This means that a violation occurs whether or not the athlete used a prohibited substance intentionally, knowingly or unknowingly, was negligent or otherwise at fault.
What is WADA?
What is WADA? Video
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established in 1999 as an international independent agency composed and funded equally by the sport movement and governments of the world. Its key activities include scientific research, education, development of anti-doping capacities, and monitoring of the World Anti-Doping Code – the document harmonizing anti-doping policies in all sports and all countries.
WADA’s vision: A world where all athletes can compete in a doping-free environment. For more information about WADA, consult the WADA website.
- The World Anti-Doping Code (the Code) is the core document that provides the framework for harmonized anti-doping policies, rules and regulations within sport organizations and among public authorities. It works in conjunction with the following eight International Standards that aim to foster consistency among anti-doping organizations in various areas, such asIt works in conjunction with five aimed at bringing harmonization among anti-doping organizations in various areas: Testing & Investigations (ISTI), Education (ISE), Code Compliance (ISCCS), Laboratories (ISL), Therapeutic Use Exemptions (ISTUE), Protection of Privacy and Personal information (ISPPPI), and the List of Prohibited Substances and Methods.
- The IBSF Anti-Doping Rules 2021 are based on the Code and have been adapted to International Bobsleigh and Skeleton sports.
- Athlete’s Guide to the Significant Changes in the 2021 Code - This Guide helps understand the key updates in the 2021 World Anti-Doping Code.
- The Athletes’ Anti-Doping Rights Act is based on the 2021 Code and Standards and aims to ensure that athlete rights within anti-doping are clearly set out, accessible, and universally applicable.
The aim of testing athletes is to detect and deter doping among athletes to protect the clean athletes.
Any athlete under the testing jurisdiction of IBSF may be tested at any time, with no advance notice, in- or out-of-competition. Since 2020 the IBSF has delegated the Testing programme to the International Testing Authority (ITA). The IBSF/ITA takes into account a number of factors when deciding to test an athlete or group of athletes, and tests may be organized based on general ranking, ranking during a competition, pre-determined testing pools, information received, at random (e.g. by drawing positions or names) or other by other means.
The Doping Control process
The doping control process is clearly defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency. This means that no matter where and when an Athlete is tested, the process should remain the same.
If you want to find out more on the Doping Control process itself, we recommend the ITA webinar "The Doping Control Process: Urine & Blood Sample Collection".
Athletes rights during sample collection include:
- Have a representative accompany them during the process
- Request an interpreter, if one is available
- Ask for Chaperone’s/Doping Control Officer’s identification
- Ask any questions
- Request a delay for a valid reason (e.g., attending a victory ceremony, receiving necessary medical attention, warming down or finishing a training session)
- Request special assistance or modifications to the process
- Record any comments or concerns on the Doping Control Form
Athlete responsibilities during sample collection include:
- Report for testing immediately if selected
- Show valid identification (usually a government-issued ID)
- Remain in direct sight of the DCO or Chaperone
- Comply with the collection procedure
What are testing pools and why are whereabouts important for clean sport?
IBSF has created testing pools as part of its out-of-competition testing programme. No advance notice, out-of-competition testing is at the core of effective doping control, and to support out-of-competition testing, certain athletes in the testing pools, such as those in the Registered Testing Pool (RTP), will be required to provide information on their whereabouts in ADAMS or SIMON. More general information on Whereabouts can be found here.
How do I know if I need to provide whereabouts?
If you need to provide whereabouts in ADAMS (or SIMON) as part of the IBSF Registered Testing Pool (RTP), you will be informed directly by the ITA (on behalf of the IBSF) of your inclusion in a testing pool as well as what information exactly is required of you, how to use ADAMS, deadlines to submit this information and any consequences if the information required is not submitted.
The current IBSF RTP Lists are available at Anti-Doping in our download section.
Should you have any query on how to submit whereabouts, please do not hesitate to contact the ITA at the contact information given below:
International Testing Agency
Avenue de Rhodanie 58, CH-1007 Lausanne
p: +41 21 612 12 33
For more information about ADAMS, please consult the ADAMS section of WADA’s website.
Retirement and return to competition
The use of some medications is prohibited in bobsleigh and skeleton. If you’re an athlete and you get sick or injured or you need regular treatment for an ongoing condition, you need to check the Prohibited List of Substances and Methods whether your medication is permitted or not.
If it is not, you will need to apply for a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) before taking any medication. Athletes are advised not to take any prohibited substance without a valid TUE but any established treatment should not be stopped and any urgent medication should be started. In these circumstances submission of a TUE Application and medical evidence must be submitted quickly. If the TUE is granted, you will be permitted to use the medication without committing an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV) during the period of validity of the TUE.
For information about the status of the medication, please consult the Prohibited List with your doctor.
You may consult your National Anti-Doping Organization (NADO)’s drug reference database, one of the following country specific databases or the IBSF:
- Global Dro – (Canada, UK, US, Switzerland, Japan, Australia)
- Drug-Free Sport New Zealand
- German NADA
What are the risks?
- Supplements can contain banned substances.
- Contamination (where banned substances are accidentally mixed in with the supplement) can occur during the manufacturing process.
- Ingredients on the label may be listed differently to how they are shown on the Prohibited List.
- Supplements may be sold as counterfeit products. The risk of fake supplements products is greatest when buying over the internet.
- A label saying ‘Safe for Sports People’ or ‘Approved by WADA’ is meaningless. WADA does not approve any supplement products.
Before you take a supplement, you should
- assess the need – all athletes should seek advice from a medical professional or nutritionist on their need to use supplement products.
- assess the risk – undertake thorough research of all supplement products you are considering taking.
- assess the consequences – you could receive up to a four-year ban in case the supplement would contain banned substances.
- undertaking thorough internet research.
- only using batch-tested products.
- checking on the Informed-Sport risk minimisation programmethat a supplement has been batch-tested.
- being vigilant in using any supplement. No guarantee can be given that any particular supplement is free from prohibited substances.
What is a therapeutic use exemption (TUE)?
Athletes may have illnesses or conditions that require them to take medications or undergo procedures. If the medication or method an athlete is required to use to treat an illness or condition is prohibited as per the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA) Prohibited List a TUE may give that athlete the authorization to use that substance or method while competing without invoking an anti-doping rule violation (ADRV) and applicable sanction. Applications for TUEs are evaluated by a panel of physicians, the TUE Committee (TUEC).
What are the criteria for granting a TUE?
All of the four following criteria must be met (for more details, please refer to the WADA International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions (ISTUE) Article 4.2):
- The athlete has a clear diagnosed medical condition which requires treatment using a prohibited substance or method;
- The therapeutic use of the substance will not, on the balance of probabilities produce significant enhancement of performance beyond the athlete’s normal state of health;
- The prohibited substance or method is an indicated treatment for the medical condition, and there is no reasonable permitted therapeutic alternative;
- The necessity to use that substance or method is not a consequence of the prior use (without a TUE), of a substance or method which was prohibited at the time of use.
International Bobsleigh & Skeleton Federation (IBSF) has delegated responsibility for all TUE applications to the International Testing Agency (ITA). This means that the ITA is now fully responsible for the TUE application process for all international-level athletes that fall under IBSF’s jurisdiction.
Athletes who are subject to anti-doping rules would need a TUE to take a prohibited substance or use a prohibited method. You should verify with the ITA to know to whom you need to apply and if you can apply retroactively.
First, check if the required medication or method you intend to take, or use is prohibited as per the WADA Prohibited List.
You may also use a ‘check your medication’ online like globalDRO (https://globaldro.com) or ask your NADO if it has one. The German NADA offers one for Germany.
You have a responsibility to inform your physician(s) that you are an Athlete bound to anti-doping rules. You and your physician(s) should check the Prohibited List for the substance/method you are prescribed. If the substance/method is prohibited, discuss non-prohibited alternatives, if there are none, apply for a TUE. Remember Athletes have the ultimate responsibility. Contact your NADO or the ITA if you are having difficulties in assessing the status of a substance.
Then, verify below your status, to determine your competition level and TUE application requirements:
International Level Definition
(a) Any Athlete who participates in an Event organized by the IBSF or where the IBSF is the ruling body for the Event.
(b) and/or who are part of the IBSF Registered Testing Pool or IBSF Testing Pool.
If it is determined that you are an International-Level Athlete you must apply to the ITA in advance, as soon as the need arises, unless there are emergency or exceptional circumstances.
For substances prohibited in-competition only, you should apply for a TUE at least 30 days before your next competition, unless one of the exceptions on retroactive TUEs (see below) apply.
Please refer to the section “How to apply to the ITA for a TUE?” below.
If you already have a TUE granted by your National Anti-Doping Organization (NADO):
ITA’s TUEC will automatically recognize it for purposes of international-level Competition without the need to review the relevant clinical information.
If you are NOT an International-Level Athlete and you have been tested by IBSF, ITA’s TUEC recognizes a valid TUE granted by your NADO (i.e., it satisfies the ISTUE criteria for granting a TUE); unless you are required to apply for recognition of the TUE because you are competing in an international event.
If you are NOT a National-Level Athlete as defined by your NADO and you have been tested by IBSF, you must apply for a retroactive TUE to the ITA.
Can I get a retroactive TUE?
You may only apply retroactively for a TUE to the ITA’s TUEC if:
- You required emergency or urgent treatment of a medical condition.
- There was insufficient time, opportunity or other exceptional circumstances that prevented you from submitting the TUE application or having it evaluated, before getting tested.
- You are a lower-level athlete who is not under the jurisdiction of IBSF or NADO and were tested.
- You tested positive after using a substance Out-of-Competition that is only prohibited In-Competition (for example glucocorticoids).
In rare and exceptional circumstances and notwithstanding any other provision in the ISTUE, you may apply for and be granted retroactive approval for the therapeutic use of a prohibited substance or method, if considering the purpose of the Code, it would be manifestly unfair not to grant a retroactive TUE.
This unique retroactive TUE will only be granted with the prior approval of WADA (and WADA may in its absolute discretion agree with or reject the ITA’s TUEC decision).
Using a prohibited substance or method without a TUE could result in an Anti-Doping Rule Violation.
In case an application for a retroactive TUE is necessary following sample collection, you are strongly advised to have a medical file prepared and ready to submit for evaluation.
How to apply to the ITA for TUE?
Your TUE application must be submitted in legible capital letters or typing.
The medical file must include:
- A comprehensive medical history, including documentation from the original diagnosing physician(s) (where possible);
- The results of all examinations, laboratory investigations and imaging studies relevant to the application.
Any TUE application that is not complete or legible will not be dealt with and will be returned for completion and re-submission.
To assist you and your doctor in providing the correct medical documentation, we suggest consulting the WADA’s Checklists for TUE applications for guidance and support, and Medical Information to Support the Decisions of TUECs for guidance on specific common medical conditions, treatments, substances, etc.
Keep a complete copy of the TUE application form and all medical information submitted in support of your application, and proof that it has been sent.
How to submit a request for recognition of my Nado’s TUE to the ITA?
ITA’s TUEC will automatically recognize your TUE for purposes of international-level Competition without the need to review the relevant clinical information. If the TUE is correctly entered in ADAMS, there is no need to contact us. Nevertheless, should you require a confirmation, you can submit your request to the ITA in writing quoting your ADAMS TUE reference number.
You can download your TUE certificate directly from ADAMS.
What happens at major events, for example the Olympic Games?
You must verify with the Major Event, what are its TUE requirements.
Before the Period of the Games
You should follow the normal process and submit new requests to your IF or NADO. Pre-existing TUEs will follow the recognition process provided they are entered in ADAMS.
During the Period of the Games
All Athletes participating in the Olympic Games must contact the ITA office located in the polyclinic of the Olympic Village.
When will I receive a decision on my TUE application (or request for recognition)?
The ITA’s TUEC must render a decision as soon as possible, and usually within 21 days from the date of receipt of the complete TUE application, or request for recognition, unless in exceptional circumstances.
What if I need to renew my TUE?
Each TUE has a specific duration, at the end of which it expires automatically. Should you need to continue to use the prohibited substance or method, it is your responsibility to submit a new application for a TUE with updated medical information ahead of the expiry date, so that there is sufficient time for a decision to be made prior to the expiry of the current TUE.
The presence (following sample collection), use, possession or administration of the prohibited substance or method must be consistent with the terms of your TUE. Therefore, if you require a materially different dosage, frequency, route or duration of administration, you should contact the ITA, as you may be required to apply for a new TUE. Some substances and dosages, e.g. insulin, are often modified during treatment and these possible fluctuations should be mentioned by the treating physician in the TUE application and would usually be accepted by the ITA’s TUEC.
What if my IBSF’S TUE application is denied?
A decision to deny a TUE application will include a written explanation of the reason(s) for the denial. If it is not clear to you, please contact the ITA to understand exactly why the TUE was denied. Sometimes, there may be a critical piece of information, diagnostic test, laboratory results missing, etc. In which case, you should re-apply to us.
You and/or your NADO may refer the matter to WADA for review no later than 21 days after notification of the ITA’s TUEC decision. You should send the same information that you submitted to us, and on which the decision to deny the TUE was based on, via a secure on-line method or by registered mail at:
WADA Medical Department
World Anti-Doping Agency
Stock Exchange Tower
800 Place Victoria (Suite 1700)
P.O. Box 120
Montreal (Quebec) H4Z 1B7
It should be noted that WADA is not obliged to proceed with a request for a review. In that case, you and/or your NADO may appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS).
What if my Nado’s TUE is not recognized by IBSF?
WADA Medical Department
World Anti-Doping Agency
Stock Exchange Tower
800 Place Victoria (Suite 1700)
P.O. Box 120
Montreal (Quebec) H4Z 1B7
The same information that was provided to your NADO should be submitted to WADA. Please use a secure on-line method unless sending by registered mail.
Pending WADA’s decision, your NADO TUE remains valid for national-level competition and out-of-competition testing only.
If the matter is not referred to WADA for review, your NADO must determine whether the original TUE that was granted should remain valid for national-level Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing.
Will my medical information be treated in a confidential manner?
All the information contained in a TUE application, including the supporting medical information and any other information related to the evaluation of your TUE request is kept strictly confidential and treated in accordance with the Athlete’s Declaration contained in the ADAMS TUE and in the TUE Application Form which can be found here. All members of the TUEC and any other authorized recipients of your TUE request and related information (as described in the Athlete’s Declaration) are subject to a professional or contractual confidentiality obligation.
Please review the terms of the Athlete’s Declaration carefully. In particular, note that should you wish to revoke the right of the ITA’s TUEC to obtain the information related to your TUE in accordance with the Athlete’s Declaration, your TUE application will be deemed withdrawn without approval [or recognition] being granted.
Your TUE request-related information will be retained by IBSF, ITA’s TUEC and any other authorized recipients for no longer than necessary for the purposes stated in the Athlete’s Declaration, in accordance with the International Standard for the Protection of Privacy and Personal Information.
Other useful links:
WADA International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions (ISTUE)
The World Anti-Doping Code states the roles and responsibilities that Athletes have in relation to anti-doping. Those are reflected in the IBSF Anti-Doping Rules:
ARTICLE 20 – ADDITIONAL ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF ATHLETES
The facts – what you need to know
As an Athlete, you must:
- be knowledgeable of and comply with these Anti-Doping Rules.
- be available for Sample collection at all times.
- take responsibility, in the context of anti-doping, for what they ingest and Use.
- inform medical personnel of their obligation not to Use Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods and to take responsibility to make sure that any medical treatment received does not violate these Anti-Doping Rules.
- disclose to IBSF and their National Anti-Doping Organization any decision by a non-Signatory finding that the Athlete committed an anti-doping rule violation within the previous ten (10) years.
- cooperate with Anti-Doping Organizations investigating anti-doping rule violations. Failure by any Athlete to cooperate in full with Anti-Doping Organizations investigating anti-doping rule violations may result in a charge of misconduct under IBSF's Code of Conduct for Athletes and the IBSF Code of Ethics.
- disclose the identity of their Athlete Support Personnel upon request by IBSF or a National Federation, or any other Anti-Doping Organization with authority over the Athlete.
- not engage in offensive conduct towards a Doping Control official or other Person involved in Doping Control by an Athlete, which does not otherwise constitute Tampering, may result in in a charge of misconduct under IBSF's Code of Conduct for Athletes and the IBSF Code of Ethics.
The World Anti-Doping Code states the roles and responsibilities that Athlete Support Personnel have in relation to anti-doping. Those are reflected in the IBSF Anti-Doping Rules:
ARTICLE 21 – ADDITIONAL ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF ATHLETE SUPPORT PERSONNEL
The facts – what you need to know
As an Athlete Support Personnel, you must:
- be knowledgeable of and comply with these Anti-Doping Rules.
- cooperate with the Athlete Testing program.
- use their influence on Athlete values and behavior to foster Anti-Doping attitudes.
- disclose to IBSF and their National Anti-Doping Organization any decision by a non-Signatory finding that they committed an Anti-Doping rule violation within the previous ten (10) years.
- cooperate with Anti-Doping Organizations investigating anti-doping rule violations. Failure by any Athlete Support Personnel to cooperate in full with Anti-Doping Organizations investigating anti-doping rule violations may result in a charge of misconduct under IBSF's Code of Conduct for Coaches, NF Staff & Entourage Members and the IBSF Code of Ethics.
- not Use or Possess any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method without valid justification. Any such Use or Possession may result in a charge of misconduct under IBSF's Code of Conduct for Coaches, NF Staff & Entourage Members and the IBSF Code of Ethics.
- not engage in offensive conduct towards a Doping Control official or other Person involved in Doping Control by Athlete Support Personnel, which does not otherwise constitute Tampering, may result in a charge of misconduct under IBSF's Code of Conduct for Coaches, NF Staff & Entourage Members and the IBSF Code of Ethics.
The principle of strict liability is applied in situations where urine/blood samples collected from an athlete have produced adverse analytical results.
It means that each athlete is strictly liable for the substances found in his or her bodily specimen, and that an anti-doping rule violation occurs whenever a prohibited substance (or its metabolites or markers) is found in bodily specimen, whether or not the athlete intentionally or unintentionally used a prohibited substance or was negligent or otherwise at fault.
There are many risks associated with doping. From negative effects on mental and physical health, to loss of sponsorship or prize money, to permanent damage to an Athlete’s image and relationships. It is very important to understand and consider all consequences of doping. Below we have listed some of the common consequences of not competing clean.
Depending on the substance, the dosage and the consumption frequency, doping products may have particularly negative side effects on health. Some damages for the body are irreversible and may lead that the athlete’s life be in great danger.
Some doping substances may not be detrimental to the body but exercise an impact on mental health. It has been scientifically evidenced that anxiety, obsessive disorders or psychosis are direct consequences from doping.
The existence of an athlete who was held guilty for doping may be completely disrupted. Indeed, doping may represent a danger for the health, but it may also be prejudicial to fame, respect and creditworthiness. Even in the future negative findings are regularly questioned by the media and the entourage. The poor image will remain in the collective unconscious and the athlete could remain isolated.
As regards high-performance sport, an infringement of anti-doping rules often leads to a loss of income, the reimbursement of prize moneys and of the sponsorship money. An athlete suspended for several years, or even life-banned, cannot earn his/her living as usual and can even be forced into debt to live on a day-to-day basis.
A doping violation may mean loss of results, rankings, medals and qualification places at events. It could also have an impact on members of a team causing medals to be lost.
Doping may have major legal consequences. A doped athlete may be suspended, i.e. he/she may not take part in sport competition or in organized training sessions.
The long-term solution to reduce doping is through effective prevention and clean sport values-based education programs to create a strong doping-free culture. Education is an essential component of any programme focused on the development of athletes or those who support them.
The following education resources and tools are recommended by the IBSF. There are tools intended for Athletes, Athlete Support Personnell (Coaches, Medical Staff, National Federations, Parents, Managers etc.) or any other person who wishes to know more about anti-doping.
ADEL is the global Anti-Doping Education and Learning platform. ADEL welcomes anyone who wants to learn about clean sport. ADEL has a range of interactive courses and resources (ADEL Academy) as well as opportunities to connect with others involved in anti-doping. WADA‘s aim is to help people get educated and to find the technical anti-doping help when they need to. If you prefer to learn on the go, you can also download their Mobile App ‘ADEL by WADA’ which you can find from the iTunes or GooglePlay stores.
On ADEL you can find:
- Resources for athletes
- Resources for athlete support personnel
- Quizzes, Videos, Webinars and more!
ADEL Website for more information and signing up
In 2020 our Partner, the International Testing Agency (ITA), started to run a series of online learning sessions that cover important topics in anti-doping. The Webinars are available on Youtube and cover topics such as: Understanding the Anti-Doping Landscape and the Athlete Perspective; Doping Control Process: Urine and Blood Sample Collection; Principles and Values, Rights and Responsibilities; Medications, Supplements, TUEs and the Prohibited List, The Registered Testing Pool, Whereabouts and use of ADAMS (Athlete Central) and more.
Concrete tips about suspected doping offences are one of the most effective ways to keep sport clean. The courage of whistleblowers has shed light on many serious misconducts endangering fairness in competitions and the health of athletes in the past years.
In order to protect clean athletes, the IBSF encourages anyone who becomes aware of, or suspects, any breach of the WADA World Anti-Doping Code, to report such doping violation concerns in confidence. One way to do so is by using our Partners doping reporting platform called ‘Reveal’, that the International Testing Agency (ITA) launched in 2021 to offer additional opportunities to report doping offences.
Reveal is an additional opportunity for informants to speak out next to already existing whistleblowing channels offered by WADA (‘Speak Up’) and several National Anti-Doping Organisations (NADOs).
IBSF Testing Statistics 2015/2016
IBSF Testing Statistics 2016/2017
IBSF Testing Statistics 2017/2018
IBSF Testing Statistics 2018/2019
IBSF Testing Statistics 2019/2020
IBSF Testing Statistics 2020/2021
WADA Anti-Doping Testing Figures for all Sports (Current & Archive)
Decisions by the IBSF or CAS - only published for individuals currently suspended:
Currently no case
IBSF Anti-Doping Privacy Notice